Basics of d block elements


What are d block elements?

The elements which have half-filled d subshells in their highly stable oxidation state or ground state are d block elements. They are also known as transition elements. The number of electrons in all the transition elements is similar.

d block elements electronic configuration

There exists three series of elements that rely on the n-1 d orbital that will be filled. The lower energy orbital will fill first. Hence 4s orbital is filled first and then the 3d orbital which has higher energy is filled. The electronic configuration of first series is denoted as 1s22s2p6 3s2p6d1-10 4s2

The electronic configuration of second series is denoted as 1s22s2p6 3s2p6d1-10 4s2p6d1-10 5s2

The electronic configuration of third series is denoted as 1s22s2p6 3s2p6d1-10 4s2p6d1-10 5s2p6d1-10 6s2

Properties of d block elements

  • All d block elements are metals.
  • The atomic size of d block elements is smaller than s block elements from Scandium to Zinc and as the nuclear charge increases, atomic size decreases.
  • The I.P. values are intermediate between of s block and p block elements. Therefore d block elements are more electropositive when compared to p block elements but less reactive when compared to s block elements. They have the ability to form covalent as well as ionic compounds.
  • Excluding zinc, the boiling and melting point of all transition elements is very high.
  • It has small atomic radii with greater interatomic forces of attraction. They are very hard.
  • d block elements are good conductors of heat as well as electricity.
  • Excluding zinc, all other d block elements are colorless as a result of unpaired electrons.

d block elements names

Element name Symbol Atomic number
Scandium Sc 21
Titanium Ti 22
Vanadium V 23
Chromium Cr 24
Manganese Mn 25
Iron Fe 26
Cobalt Co 27
Nickel Ni 28
Copper Cu 29
Zinc Zn 30
Yttrium Yt 39
Zirconium Zr 40
Niobium Nb (Cb) 41
Molybdenum Mo 42
Technetium Tc 43
Ruthenium Ru 44
Rhodium Rh 45
Palladium Pd 46
Silver Ag 47
Cadmium Cd 48
Lanthanum La 57
Hafnium Hf 72
Tantalum Ta 73
Tungsten W 74
Rhenium Re 75
Osmium Os 76
Iridium Ir 77
Platinum Pt 78
Gold Au 79
Mercury Hg 80
Actinium Ac 89
Rutherfordium Rf 104
Dubnium Db 105
Seaborgium Sg 106
Hassium Hs 108
Meitnerium Mt 109
Darmstadium Ds or Uun 110
Roentgenium Rg 111
Copernicus Cn 112

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Written by Loknath Das